C37 Rice, R.E. & Atkin, C.K. (2002).  Communication campaigns: Theory, design, implementation, and evaluation.  In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 427-451.) Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Reprinted in T. Pludowski (Ed.) (2008). Media studies reader. Warsaw, Poland: Collegium Civitas Press; and Torun, Poland: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszalek.

While there has been extensive research and practice in campaign theorizing, design, implementation, evaluation, and critique over the past decade since our initial summary chapter (Rice & Atkin, 1994) many current campaigns still fall far below expectations, many theoretical aspects of campaigns are still only partially understood, and many (often unexpected or uncontrollable) factors may influence the direction, implementation, and outcomes of campaigns.  Only when we understand underlying general principles of communication, persuasion and social change, and the relationships among the components of a campaign, can we properly design and evaluate campaign efforts. This is especially true precisely for the reasons that social science is often criticized by practitioners: Reality is too complex to identify what really causes what and what is and is not effective, especially when perceptions are based solely on experience gained in a few campaigns.

This chapter summarizes recent theory and research that generates the following 10 communication campaign principles:
Understand Historical and Political Context
Review the Realities, and Understand the Sociocultural Situation
Understand the Audience
Apply Appropriate Theory
Apply the Communication/Persuasion Matrix to Message Design
Conduct Formative Evaluation
Engage the Media
Engage the Community
Conduct Summative Evaluation
Consider Ongoing Challenges

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