C31. Rice, R.E. & Foote, D. (2001). A systems-based evaluation planning model for health communication campaigns in developing countries.  In Rice, R.E. & Atkin, C. (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (3rd ed., pp. 146-157). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.  (Also earlier versions in 1st and 2nd editions.)

Systematic evaluation of health and nutrition communication campaigns in less developed countries is of paramount importance, because poor health conditions continue to stifle human and national potential, high levels of governmental and individual resources are involved, and the cumulative knowledge about how to design communication interventions effectively in such settings is inconsistent. This chapter presents a systems-theoretic framework for planning evaluations of health communication campaigns in less developed countries, to identify relevant variables and processes, and to facilitate more effective and focused efforts.

The proposed evaluation planning model involves the following stages, although in an ongoing project these stages represent processes that are interrelated and interactive: (1) specifying the goals and underlying assumptions of the project; (2) specifying the process model at the project level; (3) specifying prior states, system phases, and system constraints; (4) specifying immediate as well as long-term intended poststates; (5) specifying the process model at the individual level; (6) choosing among research approaches appropriate to the system; and (7) assessing implications for design.  This chapter describes the model, using examples from evaluations carried out on infant health interventions in Honduras and The Gambia.
    Specifying the Goals and Related Projects
    Assessing Behavior Change and Causal Processes in Health Campaigns
    The Honduran and Gambian Projects
    Specifying the System and Its Components
    Specifying the Prior State and System Constraints
    Specifying the Prior State
    Specifying System Phases
    Specifying System Constraints
Media Inputs
Resource Inputs
Audience Inputs
    Specifying Immediate and Long-term Project Goals
    Specifying the Process Model at the Individual Level
    Choosing among Research Approaches
    Implications for Design

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