C30. Rice, R.E. (2001).  Diffusion of innovations and communication.  In J. Schement (Ed.), Encyclopedia of communication and information (pp. 248-253).  New York, NY: Macmillan Reference.
C29. Rice, R.E. (2001).  Networks and communication.  In J. Schement (Ed.), Encyclopedia of communication and information (pp. 641-645).  New York, NY: Macmillan Reference.
C28. Rice, R.E. (2001).  Organizational communication.  In J. Schement (Ed.), Encyclopedia of communication and information (pp. 682-686).  New York, NY: Macmillan Reference.
C27. Rice, R.E. (2001).  Careers in organizational communication.  In J. Schement (Ed.), Encyclopedia of communication and information (pp. 686-689).  New York, NY: Macmillan Reference.

Diffusion of Innovations and Communication
The diffusion of an innovation is the spread of a product, process or idea  perceived as new, through communication channels, among the members of a social system over time (Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed., New York: Free Press).  Innovations can be a new product or output, a new process or way of doing something, or a new idea or concept.  The "newness" of an innovation is subjective, determined by the potential adopter.  The diffusion of innovations is a rich, complex, challenging, and rewarding area for communication and information research and practice.
    Diffusion Processes
    Innovation Attributes
    Communication Channels
    Bibliography

Networks and Communication

Network analysis is the study and interpretation of influences on, forms of, and outcomes from, patterns of relations among entities.  The overall structure of a network, the relationships among the network members, and the location of a member within the network, are critical factors in understanding social behavior.  They influence, among other things, access to resources, the distribution of social and organizational power, the spread of new ideas as well as diseases, career success and mobility, workplace diversity, job satisfaction, and even personal health and longevity.

The approach has been applied to studying a wide range of topics, such as referrals among community helping agencies, overlaps in company boards of directors as part of anti-trust investigations, changes in friendship among elementary school students, rumor diffusion in organizations, interactions among transients and regular patrons at late-night diners, citation patterns among members of scientific disciplines, the role of formal organizational communication networks compared to emerging informal networks, the structure of international telecommunication traffic, and contributions to non-profit agencies.
    Network Data, Measures and Analysis
    Developments and Debates
    Resources
    Bibliography

Organizational Communication

    The Importance of Organizational Communication
Organizational communication is a process through which people construct, manage and interpret behaviors and symbols (whether verbal or nonverbal), both intentionally and unintentionally, through interaction (mediated or direct), within and across particular organizational contexts.  Organizational communication can occur at a variety of levels, involving interpersonal and dyadic interaction, small groups or teams, large meetings, and within or across organizational departments or units, entire organizations, industrial sectors, and national borders.  This communication may emphasize specific content (such as a memo providing some information) or may emphasize the nature of the relationship, what is called "meta-communication" (such as that same memo emphasizing that the person providing the information is clearly the expert and the reader should follow orders).  The focus of the communication may be on task or social aspects, on administrative or operational functions, and on disseminating or receiving.
    Organizational Theories and the Role of Communication
    Applications of Organizational Communication
    Bibliography

Careers in Organizational Communication

    The Information Society
    Communication Careers
Disciplinary and association career guides, such as those noted in the bibliography, provide good descriptions of the kinds of jobs, the educational and skill requirements, related disciplines, salary ranges, and associations related to communication and information professions.

Communication jobs can be categorized in a variety of ways:
- advertising; communication disorders; communication education; corporate communications; electronic media; journalism/magazines/book publishers; public relations; theatre/performing arts; other careers involve multiple aspects of communication and information.  Some of the most relevant include business, education, government/politics, foreign service, educational institutions, high technology industries, health centers, international relations and negotiations, law, and social and human services.
    Organizational Communication and Information Professionals
Communication and information are central aspects of all organizational activities, from managing offices, developing satisfying jobs and worker relations, motivation and commitment, up to corporate redesign, information systems implementation, and marketplace strategy.  Many organizational communication textbooks discuss job and career opportunities.  Development positions include improving team and organizational effectiveness, training managers, developing and delivering training services, providing sales and customer service training, career development, and offering technical and skills training.  Public contact positions include public affairs, community relations, media relations, and employee relations, as well as the more familiar marketing and personal sales.  Finally, general management careers pervade for-profit and non-profit organizations.  A recent search of an online career placement service, using the search term "organizational communication", found over 2000 jobs.
    Additional Sources
    Bibliography

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