Katz, J.E. & Rice, R.E. (2002). The telephone as a medium of faith,
hope, terror, and redemption: America, September 11th. In M.K. Noll
(ed.), Crisis communications:
Lessons from September 11 (pp. 83-97). NY: Rowman &
Littlefield Publishers. Earlier version: Prometheus,
This article explores how ordinary people used telephone technology
during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the USA.
emergency communication is heavily imbued with emotional meaning.
These messages address major life problems and values, such as leaving
final messages and expressing love and concern, sometimes requiring
efforts. They also show that formal technical characteristics of
media, and boundaries across media, are not particularly salient to
who have pressing personal and social communication needs.
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