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This chapter reviews the influence of organizational structures on implementation and use of computer-mediated communication and information systems (CIS), and the (re) structuring of organizational meaning and relations through CIS. Organizational structures represent boundaries (physical, bureaucratic, regulatory, cultural, national) that constrain and facilitate CIS, and CIS also constrain and facilitate new organizational structuring. Various theories, actors, and issues are used to identify some of the more important of these structural constraints and influences. While traditional media involve structures that are sublimated into "natural" artifacts by practice and stereotypes, CIS enable structures that allow the content and relations of organizations to sublimate to new forms.

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